VU age on modern diplomacy— Cruise of Cavendish— Policy of Queen Elizabeth —The Golden Hind— Unsuccessful atlempt to colonize La Paz— Vizcaino surveys the Califoriiiau coast and reaches 42° north— Discovers Cape Orford and nturus— Flores goes a degree higher— Vizcaino, failing in attempts to colonize California, returns to Spain and dies- -Spain ceases to explore the North Pacitic— Her reasons for so doing 75 CHAPTER VI. It is the very temptation to employ a material so easy to dress and make palatable to the intellectual taste of those (and they are many) who jtrefer sensation to fact 20 Il ISTOKT or AVASHINGTON.
DUTCH AND RUSRI.\N VOYAGES OF EXPLOHATIGN TO THE NORTHWEST COAST. that lias finally hardened into seeming reality the grossest fic- tions.
Whitman's arguments a powerful factor— Influ- ence of the Oregon ipieslion on the Presidential election of 1844—" Fifty. " God will cause thy name to be -won Jerftill^- resounded through the earth, and ■will give thee the keys of the gates of the ocean which are closed with strong chains." — Vuion of Columbus. Every crisis in the extreme need of man brings forth some Moses fitted to lead the people through the desert of trial into the Canaan of rest.
four- forty or figlit"— Declaration of the Democratic convention— -The Whigs also favor it- President Polk's message affirms our right— Congressional action- Arbitration jiroposed by Great Britain and declined— Influence of the slavery question-Diplomatic negotiations renewed — Buchanan's farewell despatch— Notice of abrogation given to England— Arbitration again offered and refused —England sul)mits ii treaty- Politic action of President Polk— Democratic Cabinet U'lsiis Wing Senate— He submits it to the Senate and asks advice- Articles of the treaty— Senate advises its acceptance— It is so accepted— British claims secured— The fur companies' little bill— Benton is pleased, but Uucle Sam makes a bad bargain— " Fifty-four- forty or fight" cut down to 40°— Benton's singidar speech— Vancouver's Island undervalued— A minor point settkd afterward— Great Britain, without a claim, wins her case— Pro-slavery her strongest ally— Virtue of persistency at ii happy moment— Opiinon of Robert J. The Indians and their attitude toward and influence upon the settiement and progress of Washington— The original Indian— From whence did he come ? There are critical periods in the world's general condition also, times of stagnation when civilization seems to labor upon worn-out and exhausted tields, and cries loudly for new worlds to conquer.
XI Benton's god Terminus— Bills lost and revived in otlier forms— Ecnton, newly converted, now " \v;ints the earth"— Sensible suggestions of General Jcsup— President Monroe on Oregon— Floyd to the rescue— Debates in Congress— "Masterly inaotivily"— Webster denies any right of England— Exposes her duplicity and arrogant pretensions— The matter still unsettled 239 CHAPTER XVII. with far Imtter api)reciatiou of the dilhculties to be overcome, would most freely accord. BEIXG THE OPENING OF THE FIRST DOOR BY COLUJIBUS, AND HIS GREAT DISCOA-ERY.
Walker— General result and general disappointment- The long con- troversy finally ended 267 CHAPTER XVIII. — Various theories— The glacial period— Organic changes— Savagery and bar- barism defined and l)ounded— Savagery divided into three clas'-es- Savages of Pugct Sound— Original Indians the curse of our coast— Early atrocities- Cooper's models— Native nature and cliaracler— Some private views— "Ten- derfoot" Tcrtiis "old settler"- Opinions diametrically opposed— Folly of pres- ent systems cxpf)sed— The remedy — Two courses open to our Government — Failure of ef Torls to advance the Indian— The irrepressible conflict— Indian occupancy considered- lias he been cheated '('—. Her enterprises, dammed up and circumscribed, chafe against tlieir barriers and require larger opportunities fur action.
Mistakes of Eastern sentinient- alism— Two personal anecdotes — Did the Indian really possess the land 'i' — Continuation of savagery impossible — The savage and the settler compared — Indians of Washington— Influence of the fur companies on their treatment of the early settlers — Why fur traders and the natives were agreed— Indian hatred of Americans— American martyrs of the early settlements in the Northwest- No poetry in the savage of the Sound 281 XU TABLE OF CONTENTS. INDIAN PECULIAItl TIES — THE ABORICil NES OF WASHINGTON— TIIEIU MANNEIIS, CUSTOMS, AND CHAUACTEKISTICS. To hnd some imaginary promised land to enter in and possess it be- comes the universal hope and general endeavor.
Having thus, as it were, led our reader from " dawn to daylight" upon the coast, we shall endeavor to trace the prog- ress of interior occupancy, when the first faint plash of waves was heard, " Erelong to roll :i liiiinaii sea," of those who flocked in by land from the eastward to settle upon the fertile fields of Washington. In the tieatment of our subject from a historical standpoint, we juopose to rely mainly upon the delineation of its earlier life and history, the exposition of the slower processes of that social and political evolution, that misty, doubtful dawn, often over- cast with threatening clouds, which has finally ended happily and ushered in so perfect and promising a day.
«« L HISTORY OF WASHINGTON THE EVERGREEN STATE FROM EARLY DAWN TO DAYLIGHT WITH TOli TTi Al TS ^jy O 'BIOGTi^PHIES JULIAN HAWTHORNE EDITOR ASSISTEO BY COL. To this will naturally follow, as briefly as may be, some notice of later voyages and attempts, more or less successful, to exam- ine and settle onr own western bf)undarj% not only the explora- tions of Spain, but of those who emulated her — the Russian, the Dutch, the English, and American navigators whose united efforts mapped out our geography of to-day. B 31T White, Harry 325 Wilbur, Lot 431 Wilkinson, J. C 277 Spokane Falls 193 Snoqualmie Falls 229 Post Falls, Upper Channel 367 Post Falls, Lower Channel 409 HISTORY OF WASHINGTON. So, while all eyes are not unnaturally turned to the con- templation of this, almost the youngest born of our beautiful sisterhood of States, we can but wonder at the culmination, progress, and possible future of this new star, now rising so rapidly uion our national horizon, which we are proud to wel- come into the federal galaxy under the name most beloved and revered throughout our land— the immortal name of Washington.