The Coptic Orthodox Church has its roots in Egypt, where most of the population became Christian during the first centuries. The community flourished during the Mamluk period (1250-1517), and again with Mohammed Ali in 1830.
Since the 13th century the (Coptic) Patriarch of Alexandria has been represented in Jerusalem by a resident archbishop.
It is led by an archimandrite and consists of a small community of monks and nuns resident in Jerusalem.
The Non-Chalcedonian churches are churches of the East - Armenian, Coptic, Ethiopian and Syrian - that rejected the teaching of the Council of Chalcedon (451) on the double (divine and human) nature of Christ.
The two missions are each led by an archimandrite, who is assisted by a number of monks and nuns.
After his death the early Apostolic Church, at least that in and around Jerusalem, remained Judeo-Christian until the rebuilding of Jerusalem (c.Historically, this Church developed from the Churches of the East Roman or Byzantine Empire.The Greek Orthodox Patriarchate considers itself to be the Mother Church of Jerusalem, to whose bishop patriarchal dignity was granted by the Council of Chalcedon in 451. However, in 1964 a historic meeting between Pope Paul VI and the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, Athenagoras, was held in Jerusalem.The community numbers about 120,000 in Jerusalem, the Galilee, Judea, Samaria and Gaza.Two other historic Orthodox national churches also have representation in the country: the Russian and the Rumanian.